Lee, M.S.Y. and Jamieson, B.G.M. 1992g. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of three species of myobatrachid frogs (Anura, Amphibia) with phylogenetic considerations. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 73, 213-222.
Comparison of the spermatozoa of three genera of limnodynastines (Myobatrachidae: Anura) with those of 42 other species of frogs (in 11 families) previously examined allows the following phylogenetic inferences. The bufonoid neobatrachians (corresponding with the Arcifera of some classifications) form a monophyletic assemblage which is characterized by the possession, unique for the Anura, of a conical perforatorium; the rod-like perforatorium, which is plesiomorphic for tetrapods, is absent. Of the taxa investigated, the myobatrachids appear to be the sister-group of the remaining bufonoids, here termed eubufonoids (leptodactylids, rhinodermatids, hylids, and bufonids). The spermatozoa of the myobatrachids Limnodynastes, Neobatrachus, and Mixophyes are very similar to each other despite extremely varied fertilization biology. Symplesiomorphies for the Anura which they exhibit include the conical acrosome with subacrosomal material, the elongate, cylindrical nucleus, single flagellum and, paralleling this, an undulating membrane which is supported by a longitudinal element, the axial (major) fibre, the latter being accompanied in the midpiece by mitochondria. A myobatrachid synapomorphy appears to be the presence of a periaxial sheath enclosing the axial fibre of the flagellum. Forward extension of the axial fibre into the centriolar fossa in myobatrachids is seen elsewhere only exceptionally (in the bufonid Nectrophynides). Bufonids, and most other eubufonoids including leptodactylids, differ apomoprhically from Limnodynastes, and Neobatrachus in location of the mitochondria at the axonemal end (and in a collar) rather than the axial fibre end of the undulating membrane. In Mixophyes, mitochondria surround the nuclear-axonemal junction in a cytoplasmic droplet and are probably shed with this at maturity.