Zhu, D., Jamieson, B.G.M., Hugell, A. and Moritz, C. 1994d. Sequence evolution and phylogenetic signal in control-region and cytochrome b sequences of rainbow fishes (Melanotaeniidae). Molecular Biology and Evolution 11, 672-683.
The nucleotide sequences of segments of the cytochrome b gene (351 bp), the tRNA-Pro gene (49 bp), and the control region ( apprx 313 hp) of mitochondrial DNA were obtained from 26 fish representing different populations and species of Melanotaenia and one species of Glossolepis, freshwater rainbow fishes confined to Australia and New Guinea. The purpose was to investigate relative rates and patterns of sequence evolution. Overall levels of divergence were similar for the cytochrome b and tRNA control-region sequences, both ranging from lt 1% within subspecies to 15%-19% between genera. However, the patterns of sequence evolution differed. For the cytochrome b gene, transitions consistently exceeded transversions, the bias ranging from 4.2:1 to 2:1, depending on the level of sequence divergence. However, in the control-region sequence, a bias toward transitions (2:1) was observed only in comparisons between very similar sequences, and transversions outnumbered transitions in comparisons of divergent sequences. Graphic comparisons suggested that the control region was saturated for transitions at relatively low levels of sequence divergence but accumulated transversions at a greater rate than did the cytochrome b sequence. These distinct patterns of base substitution are associated with differences in A+T content. which is 70% for the tRNA control-region segment versus 50% for cytochrome b. A test for skewness in the distribution of lengths of random trees indicated that both segments contained phylogenetic signal. Parsimony analyses of the data from the two regions, with or without weighting schemes appropriate to the respective patterns of sequence evolution, identified the same five groupings of sequences, but the relationships among the groups differed. However, in most cases the branches uniting different combinations of groups were poorly supported, and the differences among topologies were insignificant. Considering the observed patterns of base substitution and the results of the phylogenetic analyses, we deduce that both the control region and cytochrome b are appropriate for population genetic studies but that the control region is less effective than cytochrome b for resolving relationships among divergent lineages of rainbow fishes.