The spermatozoa of Uta stansburiana and Urosaurus ornatus show the following squamate autapomorphies: a single perforatorium extending anteriorly from the apical tip of the paracrystalline subacrosomal cone; the presence of an epinuclear electron lucent region; intermitochondrial dense bodies; and the fibrous sheath extending into the midpiece. The acrosome vesicle is flattened and concentrically zoned apically; basally it overlies a subacrosomal cone which invests the nuclear rostrum. A stopper-like perforatorial base plate, rounded nuclear shoulders and a basal nuclear fossa are present. The proximal centriole contains a density within its centre for approximately one half its length and lies at approximately 80 degrees to the distal centriole. The two central singlets of the axoneme extend into the short distal centriole. A peripheral dense fibre is associated with each of the nine triplets of the distal centriole, and the fibre continues posteriorly with each of the nine doublets of the axoneme. A central fibre is associated with the two central singlets. All fibres are absent or vestigial at the level of the annulus. Mitochondria are short sinuous with a maximum of eight seen in transverse section. Uta and Urosaurus sperm differ from each other in their arrangement of intermitochondrial dense bodies in two ways: 1) longitudinally, Uta has five incomplete 'rings' of dense bodies, whereas Urosaurus has only four such rings; 2) in cross section, each individual 'ring' of Uta may contain up to four irregularly spaced dense bodies, whereas Urosaurus contains a maximum of only two dense bodies. The sperm of Uta and Urosaurus show strong similarities to those of the agamids and polychrotids. No spermatozoal autapomorphies for the Phrynosomatidae were found.