The ultrastructure of paraspermatogenesis is examined in the littorinid subfamily Littorininae, with special emphasis on Littoraria (Palustorina) articulata (PHILIPPI 1846). In particular the study focuses on the fate of the nucleus and origin of the rod bodies during parasperm development. Parasperm of the Littorininae are rounded or oblong cells, which undergo an abortive meiosis and eliminate part of the nucleus but often retain a nuclear remnant. The cytoplasm is filled with numerous spherical vesicles in all Littorininae, but in Littoraria (and in certain species of Nodilittorina, Tectarius and Cenchritis) dense 'rod-bodies' also occur. Littoraria (Palustorina) are unique in possessing a flagellum-like structure termed the 'pseudotrich', which lacks an axoneme but contains microtubules during its development. Paraspermatogonia differ from euspermatogonia in the structure of the nucleus and in the extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and swollen cytoplasm. Two types of secretions develop in Littoraria: (1) numerous, spherical granules (composed of putative glycoprotein, also seen in other Littorininae) and (2) rhomboid granules (composition uncertain but reacting positively to RNA stains; these granules arising within RER cisternae close to the nucleus). As the rhomboid granules fuse to form the larger, rod-bodies (polygonal in cross section), the RER membrane enclosing the rod-bodies becomes confluent with the outer nuclear membrane, thereby forming a common compartment. Results of this study clearly show that the rod-bodies are secretions of the RER cisternae and not, as claimed in some light microscopic accounts, the product of fusion of eusperm nuclei which have entered the parasperm cytoplasm (either by active eusperm penetration or by phagocytosis). Developmental characteristics of littorinid parasperm show differences between species and may, in some cases, provide characters diagnostic of subgenera.