Scheltinga, D.M., Jamieson, B.G.M., Espinoza, R.E. and Orrell, K.S. 2001a. Descriptions of the mature spermatozoa of the lizards Crotaphytus bicinctores, Gambelia wislizenii (Crotaphytidae) and Anolis carolinensis (Polychrotidae) (Reptilia, Squamata, Iguania). Journal of Morphology 247, 160-171.
The spermatozoa of Crotaphytus bicinctores and Gambelia wislizenii (Crotaphytidae), and Anolis carolinensis (Polychrotidae) exhibit the squamate autapomorphies of a single perforatorium extending anteriorly from the apical tip of the paracrystalline subacrosomal cone, the presence of an epinuclear electron-lucent region, and extension of the fibrous sheath into the midpiece. Crotaphytid sperm differ from those of polychrotids in several respects, including: the structure of the perforatorium, the size of the epinuclear electron-lucent region, aspects of the acrosome complex, the arrangement and structure of intermitochondrial dense bodies, and in the distance the fibrous sheath extends into the midpiece. The sperm of C. bicinctores, G. wislizenii, and A. carolinensis are most similar to those of the agamids and phrynosomatids examined to date. No spermatozoal autapomorphies for Crotaphytidae or Polychrotidae were found. The condition of having the intermitochondrial dense bodies arranged in regular incomplete rings is tentatively defined as a synapomorphy of Iguania (although modified in Chamaeleonidae). Spermatozoal ultrastructure offers no characters that justify the separation of Iguanidae (sensu lato) into several separate families.