A small collection of earthworms from New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory which are the subject of agricultural studies is shown to consist of five species: Notoscolex bakeri sp. nov.; Spenceriella bywongensis sp. nov.; S. hamiltoni (Fletcher, 1887), S. macleayi (Fletcher, 1889) and S. nevillensis sp. nov. Notoscolex sensu stricto is known from New South Wales and Victoria, with one species, doubtfully included, from south-western Australia. N. bakeri appears to be the closest known relative of N. montiskosciuskoi Jamieson, 1973, but differs from the latter in lacking calciferous glands. Spenceriella occurs in the Kosciuskan Division and Darling Basin province of Australia, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. S. macleayi (Fletcher), .S bywongensis and S. nevillensis spp. nov., all with two pairs of spermathecae, appear closely related but differ, among other respects, in having respectively two, three and four pairs of calciferous glands. S. hamiltoni, with three pairs of spermathecae and of calciferous glands, is considered to be the senior synonym of Anisochaeta chani Blakemore, 2000. Material from the Upper Manning River, New South Wales, previously referred to S. raymondiana (Fletcher 1887) is distinguished as Spenceriella manningi sp. nov.